|The Contributions of Marine Sediment Cores to Volcanic Hazard Assessments: Present Examples and Future Perspectives
|Year of Publication
|Satow, C, Watt, S, Cassidy, M, Pyle, D, Deng, YNatalie
The rigorous assessment of volcanic hazards relies on setting contemporary monitoring observations within an accurate, longer-term geological context. Revealing that geological context requires the detailed fieldwork, mapping and laboratory analysis of the erupted materials. However, many of the world’s most dangerous volcanic systems are located on or near coasts (e.g., the Phlegraean Fields and Vesuvius in Italy), islands (e.g., the volcanic archipelagos of the Pacific, south-east Asia, and Eastern Caribbean), or underwater (e.g., the recently erupting Hunga Tonga–Hunga Ha’apai volcano), meaning that much of their erupted material is deposited on the sea bed. The only way to sample this material directly is with seafloor sediment cores. This perspectives paper outlines how marine sediment cores are a vital yet underused resource for assessing volcanic hazards by: (1) outlining the spatio-temporal scope of the marine volcanic record and its main deposit types, (2) providing existing examples where marine sediments have contributed to volcanic hazard assessments; (3) highlighting the Sunda Arc, Indonesia as an example location where marine sediment cores are yet to contribute to hazard assessments, and (4) proposing that marine sediment cores can contribute to our understanding of very large eruptions that have a global impact. Overall, this perspectives paper aims to promote the utility of marine sediment cores in future volcanic hazard assessments, while also providing some basic information to assist researchers who are considering integrating marine sediment cores into their volcanological research.